Short Chain Fatty Acids, Pancreatic Dysfunction and Type 2 Diabetes
The microbiota living in gut influence the immune response, metabolism, mood and behavior. The diet plays a pivotal role in maintaining healthy gut microbiota composition and its fermentation leads to production of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) mainly acetate, propionate and butyrate. During pancreatic dysfunction, insulin mediated suppression of glucagon is impaired leading to uncontrolled glucose production by liver and state of hyperglycemia. Insulin and glucagon balance is as important as insulin sensitivity which is reduced during Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP1) produced by Intestinal epithelial cells regulates insulin and glucagon secretion directly via GLP1 receptor on pancreatic cells or via nervous system. But half-life period of GLP1 is very short i.e. about 2 min, after which it is cleaved and inactivated. SCFAs are well documented to induce GLP1 but its direct effect on pancreatic dysfunction has not been reported. This review opens a new avenue to study the role of SCFAs as treatment to pancreatic dysfunction and T2D.
Mandaliya, D. K., & Seshadri, S. (2019). Short Chain Fatty Acids, pancreatic dysfunction and type 2 diabetes. Pancreatology.